"O maior inimigo da autoridade é o desprezo e a maneira mais segura de solapá-la é o riso." (Hannah Arendt 1906-1975)

quinta-feira, 8 de janeiro de 2015

Pergunta e "Pergunta" de volta...

Muito interessante a maneira de colocar a pergunta...rsss..Como se cada uma das opções fosse de fato uma opção de "luta" equivalente..Curioso é que, na primeira opção, aquilo contra o que se "luta" SEQUER EXISTE..Assume-se, por outro lado, que é um fato DADO como certo que, se as pessoas não receberem "educação"..vão se tornar terroristas, não é?? Muito bem: então a CAUSA DO TERRORISMO É A FALTA DE EDUCAÇÃO..Perfeito ! Só não consigo entender como um dos sujeitos que atirou o avião contra as torres em 11 de setembro tinha PhD na Alemanha e, como centenas de pessoas completamente analfabetas que conheci na minha vida eram de uma caridade e de uma educação melhor do que a escória que me deu aula dentro da Faculdade de Medicina da UFRGS...Se o sujeito que fez a foto me responder essas perguntas, eu responderei a dele..rsss

Milton Pires

Atta, Mohamed (1 Sept. 1968-11 Sept. 2001), terrorist, was born in the delta province of Kafr el Sheik, Egypt, the son of Mohamed el-Amir Awad el-Sayed Atta, a lawyer, and Bouthayna Mohamed Mustapha Sheraqi. He was the youngest of three children and the couple's only son. Both parents were Muslim by birth, and Islamic cultural traditions were observed by the family; however, no one remembers the family openly practicing their religion. A fervent belief in the power of education, not religion, was the driving force behind Atta's father, a self-made man known as Mohamed el-Amir. Reportedly ruling his family with a proverbial iron fist, the elder Mohamed restricted their social activities and insisted that all his children concentrate on their studies. Playing outside the home was forbidden to Atta and his sisters, and their mother's activities were also limited by the father; former neighbors remembered the family as antisocial and reclusive. Those habits continued following the family's move to Cairo in the late 1970s.
All three children excelled in school, and in 1985 Atta followed his two older sisters to Cairo University, where admission was highly competitive. His academic skills led to his placement in the architecture program, reputedly the university's most demanding course of study. Atta had the analytical ability to succeed but reportedly lacked the necessary artistic talent; moreover, the program required self-direction from its students, and Atta apparently took longer than the usual five years to complete the degree. Though he received respectable grades, he found it difficult to excel, and following graduation he was denied admission to the university's graduate school. His disappointed father, who had insisted that Atta become proficient in German as well as English, decided to send him to Germany for further study.
For decades Egypt had been a central player in the political turmoil that characterized the postwar Middle East, and tensions further increased following the assassination of President Anwar Sadat in 1981. Political demonstrations were met with severe repression by the secular government, which also prohibited any involvement by religious groups in political activities. Defying this ban was an emerging fundamentalist Islamic group known as the Muslim Brotherhood, which called for the rejection of secularism and the creation of a new government rooted in the core values of traditional Islam. Risking arrest, the Brotherhood proselytized actively on the Cairo University campus during Atta's undergraduate years, but Atta appeared indifferent to both political controversy and religious extremism. His father, according to later reports, had cautioned him against involvement in anything other than his studies.
In 1992 the senior Atta made arrangements for his son to move to Hamburg, Germany, and after initial difficulties finding a school to accept him, he enrolled at the Technical University of Hamburg as a graduate student in urban planning. Several professors there encouraged his growing interest in the preservation of historic Islamic architecture, and he did well in his studies. His social life was less successful: though he had had casual friends at Cairo University, the naturally introverted Atta became a loner in Hamburg. Actively disliked by his roommates for his aloofness and his slovenly personal habits, he focused on his academic work. He also became an observant Muslim, praying regularly and displaying the Qur'an prominently in his room.
In the summer of 1994, at the invitation of a professor, Atta participated in the ongoing restoration of an ancient city near Aleppo, Syria, and he enjoyed the experience so much that he returned to the site several months later for a brief period. The experience in Syria not only confirmed his decision to specialize in the preservation of Islamic architecture; it also aroused his anger: evidence of wholesale destruction of ancient buildings in the region to make way for modernization reportedly made him furious. Back in Germany he seemed to have found a goal, and he talked often about returning to Egypt to help restore its traditional architecture. In 1995 such an opportunity seemed to present itself when he was offered a summer job in Cairo to analyze a local restoration project. Once there, however, he was dismayed to find that the government wanted to destroy a traditional but gritty urban neighborhood and replace it with a kind of theme park, hiring actors to impersonate traditional craftsmen and street vendors.
During his summer in Cairo, Atta surprised old acquaintances by strict adherence to Islamic rituals, and--with his father's approval--he joined the yearly pilgrimage to Mecca. Returning to Hamburg, he resumed his studies, apparently without incident, and completed his course work in the spring of 1997. Atta's whereabouts and activities during the following year are not fully known. Presumably working on his thesis, he disappeared from Hamburg for weeks at a time. It is now believed that during this period he attended a training camp in Afghanistan run by al-Qaeda, the Islamic terrorist group run by Osama bin Laden. In the fall of 1998 he left student housing and by November was living with two fellow Muslims who were sometime students. This group apparently formed the nucleus of a new al-Qaeda cell in Hamburg. Neighbors reported that over the following months Atta's apartment became a gathering place for traditionally dressed fellow Muslims to discuss what they claimed was "philosophy." Meanwhile, Atta was completing his master's thesis, which he submitted in June 1999.
Following graduation, Atta returned to Cairo, where he learned that his father had chosen a bride for him. His father had also determined that the wedding would occur after Atta completed his studies for the Ph.D. in Germany. Atta was reportedly reluctant to return to Germany and told his mother he wished to remain in Cairo with the family. His mother is said to have discouraged him from staying and advised him to continue his studies in the United States. In late 1999 and early 2000 Atta is believed to have made several visits to Osama bin Laden and his associates as he strengthened his ties with al-Qaeda. In February 2000 he traveled to Hamburg, where he reported to authorities that his passport had been stolen. He was issued a new passport, and all evidence of his prior travels disappeared. Authorities now believe that by this time plans were well under way for the al-Qaeda-sponsored air attack on the United States that occurred on 11 September 2001 and that Atta had been chosen as its leader.
In early 2000 Atta began making inquiries about flight schools in the United States. In June he arrived via Prague at Newark Airport in New Jersey with one of his Hamburg cellmates, Marwan al-Shehhi. Over the next few weeks, the pair continued to investigate flight schools, traveling as far west as Oklahoma. Finally, in early July, they moved to South Florida and began flight instruction at Huffman Aviation in Venice. Atta received certification as a private pilot in September and then briefly enrolled with al-Shehhi at another flight school, Jones Aviation, in Sarasota, before returning to Huffman. By December, Atta was sufficiently proficient to receive a commercial pilot's license from the Federal Aviation Administration. He then went on to pursue simulator training for large jets--the McDonnell-Douglas DC-9 and the Boeing 727, 737, and 767.
Over the following months, Atta and al-Shehhi continued laying the groundwork for the 9/11 attacks. They participated in flight-training exercises at airfields in Georgia as well as Florida, and Atta also made trips to Spain, Boston, San Francisco, and Las Vegas. In July, Atta flew back to Spain, where he rendezvoused near Tarragona with Ramzi Binalshibh, another member of the Hamburg cell, who was in close contact with bin Laden. According to investigators, Atta was making final plans for what became known as "9/11." By this time, a total of twenty conspirators had signed on for the attacks and were being deployed in both the United States and abroad. Atta returned to the U.S. on 19 July and during the following weeks spent time in Fort Lauderdale and Orlando, Florida, as well as Newark. These trips are all believed to have been surveillance flights. Meanwhile, in early August, one of the conspirators, a Dubai national, was denied entry to the United States, reducing their ranks to nineteen.
By early September the plan was ready to be set in motion. On 10 September, Atta met fellow conspirator Abdulaziz al-Omari in Boston and drove him to Portland, Maine, where they spent the night in a motel. The next morning they arrived at Portland International Airport and boarded a 6:00 a.m. commuter flight to Logan Airport, in Boston. They arrived late at Logan for a transfer to American Airlines Flight 11, headed for Los Angeles, and were rushed through security. Three other fellow hijackers had already boarded the plane, which carried a total of eighty-one passengers and a crew of eleven.
Flight 11, a Boeing 767, took off at 7:59 a.m. Fifteen minutes later, at 8:14, Atta and his accomplices began their hijacking operation, and ground communication with the pilots ended. Two flight attendants called American Airlines from the plane at 8:18 to report an apparent hijacking and the stabbing of passengers and crew members by the hijackers. At 8:24 a voice believed to be that of Atta was heard by air traffic controllers, telling passengers on the intercom to remain calm: "We are returning to the airport." In fact, the plane was headed, by prearrangement, to the World Trade Center in New York City. At 8:46 Atta, at the controls of the Boeing 767, crashed the plane into the North Tower of the trade center, presumably killing everyone on board.
At 9:06 a second plane, hijacked in Boston by al-Shehhi and other Atta associates, crashed into the South Tower of the World Trade Center. In the ensuing fires and eventual collapse of both towers several thousand people were killed. Elsewhere that morning, fellow members of the operation masterminded by Atta on behalf of al-Qaeda hijacked two more planes, one taking off from Dulles International Airport, outside Washington, D.C., and the other from Newark Airport. They crashed, respectively, into the Pentagon, outside Washington, and in a rural area near Shanksville, Pennsylvania. It is believed that the hijackers on the fourth plane deliberately crashed it into a field after passengers prevented them from reaching their intended target, the U.S. Capitol in Washington. Several days later, authorities discovered Atta's luggage left behind at Logan Airport; because of the delayed commuter flight, it had not made the transfer to Flight 11. Inside were documents detailing many of Atta's activities, as well as personal writings that declared his allegiance to, and willingness to die for, the promulgation of Islamic fundamentalism.
Nearly three thousand people died and more than six thousand were injured in the terrorist attacks of 9/11--the largest number of casualties ever inflicted on U.S. territory by an aggressor. In the aftermath of the attacks, the U.S. government began what became known as the "war on terror" against al-Qaeda, entering into conflict with Afghanistan in early October and with Iraq in March 2003, with help from its international allies. In the United States, tightened security measures were put into place at airports, subways, and rail systems, and a new cabinet-level office, the Department of Homeland Security, was established to oversee domestic antiterrorist efforts. Meanwhile, other al-Qaeda-initiated terrorist attacks occurred around the world during the first decade of the twenty-first century. As of 2010, antiterrorist conflict in Afghanistan and Iraq continues.

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